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Research Abstracts

THE EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY ON HOT PEPPER GROWTH, YIELD AND SOIL LOSS PREDICTION

Theodore J.M. O'galdez, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096

A study on the effects of plant spacing (within row) on the growth and development of "Long Pod" Cayenne peppers was used to determine yield potential and possible soil loss due to plant population. Two similar filed plots established side by side were used in this study. The study was conducted during the summer of 1992 at the Alcorn State University Soil Conservation Research Site in Lorman, Mississippi. The soil is a Memphis Silt Loam (Typic Hapludalfs: fine silty, mixed, thermic) typical of Southwest Mississippi. Soil analysis at the study initiation showed a high level of magnesium, medium level of phosphorus and calcium, and low level of potassium Soil pH was 5.1, whereas organic matter content was 1.05 percent, with a cation exchange capacity of 8.8. Liming to raise soil pH was at the rate of 1.02 metric tons per hectare. Additional fertilization was based on recommendation from the Soil Testing Laboratory at Mississippi State University. The five plant spacings (treatments) of 0.61, 0.76, 0.91, 1.07 and 1.22 m, were arranged in a randomized complete block experimental design. Each treatment was replicated four times on rows 10.64 x 0.91 meters. While data collection from one field plot was by "destructive" sampling technique, data collection from the adjacent plot was by "conventional" method. For the destructive plot, canopy height, and canopy width, leaf area index and canopy cover generally increased nonsignificantly as the plant population decreased, whereas, stem diameter was significantly increased at lower plant population. Plant fresh weight generally was not significantly increased, except for root fresh weight, whereas their dry weights were generally significantly increased as the plant population increased. For the conventional plot, canopy height, canopy width, root fresh weight, total (root + shoot) fresh weight, stem diameter, residue cover and pepper yields were not increased significantly as the plant population increased. Shoot fresh weight, root and shoot dry weights were generally increased significantly with an increase in plant population. Root depth, leaf area index, and canopy cover did not show significant increase at lower plant populations. Fruit quality was not affected by plant population. 

Keywords: Cayenne Peppers, destructive sampling, leaf area index and canopy cover   

M.S. Thesis, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096  

 

PLANT GROWTH AND RESIDUE DECOMPOSITION RATES OF A FEW SELECTED HORTICULTURAL CROPS RAISED ON MEMPHIS SILT LOAM SOIL

James Bunch, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096 

A study of plant growth parameters and decomposition rates of okra, sweet corn, and field peas was conducted at Alcorn State University in Lorman, Mississippi. The growth parameters studied were canopy height, canopy width, root width, root depth, stem diameter, dry root weight, dry upperbiomass, dry plant weight and leaf area index (LAI). The decomposition rates of both root and shoot plant portions placed on the surface and buried at 5 cm and 15 cm depths for okra and field peas were compared. The same plant portions buried at 5 cm and 15 cm depths for sweet corn were also noted. Both studies were conducted on a Memphis silt loam (Typic Hapludalf, fine silty, mixed thermic) having 0 to 2 percent slope. The growth studies were conducted in the spring, summer, and the fall of 1992. The decomposition study was initiated in the summer of 1992 and ended in the spring of 1993. The plant growth study for each crop was subdivided into two major parts: (1) The destructive harvest, which were conducted at various stages in approximately 15 days intervals for studying the growth parameters and (2) The yield harvests at the end were taken from the undisturbed portions of the experimental plots. The okra, field peas, and sweet corn plots consisted of eleven, eleven, and ten rows respectively. Plant to plant distances in each row for sweet corn and field peas were 30.5 cm and for the okra it was 76.2 cm. The row lengths for okra, sweet corn and field peas were 20.36 m, 9.14 m and 10.64 m respectively. The decomposition studies were carried out with the known amounts of non edible portions (air dried at room temperature of 270C ) after the final harvests of each crop. Root and shoot portions of okra, sweet corn and field pea were buried at 5 and 15 cm depths for determining the loss in weight as a result of decomposition. Similar decomposition studies were carried out in okra for shoots only placed on the soil surface. In addition, the decomposition study for field pea roots and shoots placed on the surface was also conducted. All the plant materials, which were placed on the surface or beneath the soil, were carefully bagged in fiberglass bags for proper identification when removed after certain time intervals. 

The growth pattern of okra distinguished itself from sweet corn and field peas as it started very slowly and peaked to the highest levels in most of the parameters, and as a result, seemed to accumulate the highest amount of dry matter, organic material, as well as C, H, and N at harvest. Stem diameter and dry root weights were well correlated with yields of each crop. For sweet corn and field pea, the high dry matter accumulation corresponded to the leaf area index values. Okra exhibited a significant correlation of yield with root width and total dry plant weight. Field pea peaked the fastest in photosynthetic activity, and also had higher leaf area index values in the shortest period. Both sweet corn and field peas showed a decline in dry matter accumulation after reaching their peaks. Okra completely distinguished itself in non-edible dry matter with growing days. It had more active roots for a longer period, showing a positive correlation value affecting its yield. During the decomposition study when C:N ratios decreased, decomposition rates for the root and shoot plant portions increased. Sweet corn showed considerable loss in weight rapidly at first, and then it became gradual. Okra and field peas did not follow this trend possibly due to weather conditions. There were no significant differences found in decomposition rates for plant portions buried at 5 cm depth and 15 cm depths irrespective of the crop. This appears to be logical considering the moderately well drained Memphis silt loam soil on which these crops were tested. 

Keywords: Residue Decomposition, leaf area index, destructive harvest, C:N Ratios, fiberglass bags 

M.S. Thesis, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS, 39096

 

COMPARISON AND CORRELATION OF LEAF AREA INDEX AND UPPER AND LOWER BIOMASS OF THREE MAJOR CRUCIFERS

G.K. Panicker, S.C. Tiwari, J. Harness, L.C. Huam and A. Al-Humadi, Alcorn State University, Lorman, Mississippi, MS 39096 

Among the five factors of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), the cover and management ( C factor) has the most significant effect on the overall model efficiency. As part of the c-factor research carried out on vegetable crops, a comparison of leaf area index (LAI), upper biomass and lower biomass of broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. botrytis. cultivar. Green Comet), cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. capitata. cultivar. Red Flat Dutch) and cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae L. var. botrytis. cultivar. Snow King) was conducted as these three crops were raised with the same cultural practices. They were transplanted on the same day in spring 1992 using uniform spacings of 0.912m x 0.304m. Three destructive harvest studies were conducted at various stages of growth. Cabbage had the highest dry upper biomass from the initial to the final stage. While the quantity of upper biomass left over by broccoli during the final harvest was just half of cabbage, the cauliflower could not produce even one fourth of cabbage. In the final run, both broccoli and cabbage were superior than cauliflower in all the parameters (LAI, and upper and lower biomass) and the results were highly significant at 0.001 level. When the parameters were correlated with respective fresh crop yields, the total fresh upper biomass for each was found to be highly correlated for these crops. 

Key words: Crucifers, LAI, biomass, erosion prediction, C factor. 

Proceedings of the Annual Professional Agricultural Workers Conference. December 4-6, 1994. Tuskegee University, Alabama 36088. p.215-222.     

 

PLANT DENSITY EFFECT ON LEAF AREA INDEX AND BIOMASS DEVELOPMENT OF MUSTARD AT VARIOUS GROWTH STAGES

G.K. Panicker, S.C. Tiwari, L.C. Huam, A.H. Al-Humadi, and J. Harness 

Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096, and G.A. Weesies, USDA-NRCS, NSERL, Indiana, IN 47907 

Mustard (Brassica juncea) is widely cultivated for its leaves, seeds, and oil in Spring and Fall seasons. As apart of the research for erosion prediction being carried out on vegetable crops in Mississippi, a study was conducted to determine the plant density effect on leaf area index (LAI) and biomass development at various growth stages of this crop in Spring season. A common cultivar florida broad leaf was raised on Memphis Silt Loam soil at low density planting (LDP), 0.914m x 0.152m; and high density planting (HDP), 0.914m x 0.076m. Four destructive harvest studies were conducted at various stages of growth and pair comparison were run for "t" values. While the moisture in root and shoot was significantly higher in LDP from the initial to the final growth stage, fresh root/shoot ratio was higher in HDP. The LAI and fresh upper biomass were significantly higher in LDP at all stages of growth except in the initial stage. In the final stage, LDP was significantly higher in all other parameters including fresh and dry root, dry upper biomass, and yield, and HDP was higher in dry root/shoot ratio. The yields were highly correlated with the given spacings. LDP is more advisable for farmers concerned about erosion as the LAI and biomass production are significantly higher than HDP. 

Keywords: LAI, biomass, erosion prediction, plant density, destructive harvest 

Abstracts: Soil and Water Conservation Society 50th Annual Meting. Desmoines, IA. August 6-9, 1995.  

 

PLANT DENSITY EFFECT ON LEAF AREA INDEX AND BIOMASS DEVELOPMENT OF TURNIP AT VARIOUS GROWTH STAGES

G.K. Panicker, S.C. Tiwari, L.C. Huam, A.H.Al-Humadi, and J. Harness, Alcorn State University, MS 39096, and G.A. Weesies, USDA-NRCS, NSERL, IN 47907 

Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) is a widely cultivated root vegetable as well as a forage crop. As a part of the C-Factor research for erosion prediction being carried out in Mississippi, a study was conducted to determine the plant density effect on leaf area index (LAI) and biomass development at various growth stages of this crop in the spring season. A common cultivar, purple top, was raised in rows on Memphis Silt Loam soil at low density planting (LDP), 0.914 m x 0.152m; and high density planting (HDP), 0.914m x 0.076m. Three destructive harvest studies were conducted at various stages of growth and pair comparisons were run for "t" values. The LAI was higher in LDP at the initial growth stage, but it was nonsignificant at later stages of growth. The moisture content in root, tuber, and shoot at initial stage was significantly higher in LDP. This trend continued in the tuber and shoot through the final harvest, but the moisture in root declined significantly at the final stage. While the production of tuber and shoot was higher in LDP with a significant tuber/shoot ratio at final growth stages, the root production was higher in HDP with a high root/shoot ratio. The final yield was significantly higher in LDP. 

Keywords: Plant density, leaf area index, biomass, erosion prediction, destructive harvest 

Agronomy Abstracts. 1995 Annual Meetings. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America. St. Louis, Missouri. October 29 - November 3, 1995. p. 121  

 

THE EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY ON HOT PEPPER GROWTH, YIELD, AND SOIL LOSS PREDICTION

T.J.M. Ogaldez and P.E. Igbokwe, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096 

A field study on the effect of within-row plant spacing on the growth and development of "Alcorn Long Pod" cayenne hot peppers was used to determine the impact of plant population on fruit yield potential and soil loss. Two adjacent field plots ("destructive" and "nondestructive") were used in this study, which was conducted during the summer of 1992 at the Alcorn State University Soil Conservation Research Site in Lorman, Mississippi. The soil is a Memphis silt loam (Typic Hapludalfs: fine silty, mixed, thermic) typical of Southwestern Mississippi. The five plant spacings were 0.61, 0.76, 0.91, 10.7, and 1.22 m, arranged in a randomized complete block experiment design. Each treatment was replicated four times on rows 10.64m long and spaced 0.91 m apart. For the destructive plot, the root fresh and dry weights, shoot dry weights, and combined (root and shoot) dry weights per unit area generally increased in response to higher plant population. For the nondestructive plot, the shoot fresh weight and the root, shoot, and combined (root and shoot) dry weights per unit area increased in response to higher plant population. Fruit yield was nonsignificantly increased with increase in plant population without quality loss. 

Keywords: Plant density, destructive harvest, nondestructive plot 

Research Publication Bulletin number 95-1  

 

EFFECTS OF CONSERVATION TILLAGE AND COVER CROPS ON VEGETABLE CROP YIELDS IN SOUTHWESTERN MISSISSIPPI ON A MEMPHIS SILT LOAM SOIL

A.H. Al-Humadi, S.C. Tiwari, G.K. Panicker, J. Bunch, J. Harness, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096 and Tom Collins, USDA-NRCS, Jackson, MS 

This field research was initiated in year 1989 on highly erodible Memphis Silt Loam Soil. To determine the effect of minimum tillage on the yields of sweet corn (Zea mays L.), snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.), and the physical penetrability of the topsoil due to wheat, clover, and vetch treatments followed by the main crops as affected with time, a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. The control treatment received conventional tillage and the rest of the treatments with wheat, clover and vetch received minimum tillage, merely to seed the crops. The entire area received herbicides uniformly and the recommended dose of fertilizers along with the side dressings were used before planting the main crops like sweet corn, snap beans, or cowpeas. The average ground residue cover percent determined by camline on March 1992, showed that clover and vetch were significantly superior to wheat, and wheat was found significantly superior to the control (P<0.05). The subsequent statistical analyses were also performed at 0.05 level of probabilities. Sweet corn in 1992 had non-significant yield differences due to treatments; which also was found to be true in case of cowpeas in years 1992 and 1993. However, the multiple harvested total yields of snap beans showed significantly higher yield (1863 lbs/acre) due to vetch treatment as compared to the control (411 lbs/acre). Therefore, snap beans responded better than sweet corn and cowpeas with minimum tillage when planted after vetch. Also, the penetrometer readings taken in December 1994 did indicate significant lowest resistance due to control treatment as compared to the other treatments (wheat, clover and vetch). 

Keywords: Minimum tillage, Memphis Silt Loam, conventional tillage 

Proceedings "New Technology and Conservation Tillage". 19th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. The University of Tennessee, West Tennessee Experiment Station, Jackson, Tennessee. July 23-25, 1996. p. 1-4   

 

EFFECTS OF MINIMUM TILLAGE AND DIFFERENT VEGETATION ON CROP YIELDS FROM MEMPHIS SILT LOAM SOIL

A.H. Al-Humadi, S.C. Tiwari, G.K. Panicker, J. Bunch, J. Harness, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096 and Tom Collins, USDA-NRCS, Jackson, MS  

This field research was initiated in year 1989 on highly erodible Memphis Silt Loam Soil. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used in this test. The control treatment received conventional tillage and the rest of the treatments with wheat, clover and vetch received minimum tillage merely to seed the crops. The entire area received herbicides uniformly and the recommended dose of fertilizers along with the aide dressings were used before planting the main crops like sweet corn, (Zea mays L.), snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.) The average ground residue cover % determined by camline on March 1992, showed that clover and vetch significantly superior to wheat, and wheat was found significantly superior to control (P<0.05). The subsequent statistical analysis were also performed at 0.05 level of probabilities. Sweet corn in 1992 had non-significant yield differences due to treatments; which also was found to be true in case of cowpeas in years 1992 and 1993. However, the multiple harvested total yields of snap beans showed significantly higher yield (1863 lbs acre) due to vetch treatment as compared to the control (411 lbs acre). The penetrometer readings taken in December 1994 did indicate significant lowest resistance due to control treatment as compared to the other treatments (wheat, clover and vetch).

Keywords: Minimum tillage, conventional tillage

Abstracts of Technical Papers. 1996 Annual Meeting. Southern Branch of American Society of Agronomy. Number 23. Greensboro, North Carolina. February 3-7, 1996.

 

EFFECTS OF WINTER COVERS WITH MINIMUM TILLAGE ON YIELDS OF SWEET CORN AND FIELD PEAS

Suresh C. Tiwari, A.H. Al-Humadi, G.K. Panicker, L.C. Huam, and J. Harness, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096

This long term research was initiated in year 1989 with four treatments (1) Winter cover and minimum tillage, (2) winter cover clover and minimum tillage, (3) winter cover vetch and minimum tillage and (4) conventional tillage only. These treatments were applied in randomized complete block design with four replication. In 1993, these crops did not show any significant difference due to treatments. However in 1995, all the treatments having winter cover and minimum tillage did show superior yields to conventional tillage; and marketable yield of sweet corn were found to significantly higher at 0.05 probability level with winter covers and minimum tillage. However there was found no significant difference in the canopy cover percent of sweet corn and field peas respectively during their four different stages of growth due to treatments. The result of the experiment does have the sure implication that in long term the winter covers with minimum tillage may positively effect the yields due to improved soil quality.

Keywords: Minimum tillage, conventional tillage 

Sixtieth Annual Meeting. Program & Abstract Issue. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences. Volume 41 (1). January 1996. 

 

INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEM ON SWEET PEPPER YIELD POTENTIAL AND SOIL PROPERTIES

Melvin Motton, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096

Two field plots established side by side were used to evaluate the effect of conventional (chemical-intensive) monocropping system and low-input (reduce-chemical) multiple cropping system on "Yolo Wonder" sweet pepper cultivar growth and yield potentials. The low-input cropping system involved the production of sweet pepper in intercropping system with swiss chard vegetable companion, or in intercropping system with rosemary herb companion. The effect of cropping systems on yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) control and some soil properties were also investigated. The study was conducted at the Alcorn State University, Soil Conservation Research Site, Lorman, Mississippi. The soil is a Memphis silt loam (Typic Hapludalfs: fine silty, mixed, thermic). A completely randomized design was used in this study. The cropping systems were assigned to rows 12.19 m long, and 1.07 m wide. Ten pepper seedlings obtained by seeding pepper seeds in Pro Mix Bx â in the greenhouse were planted on each row at a within-row distance of 1.22 m. Each plant represented an experimental unit. Data collections were either by "Destructive" or "Nondestructive" sampling technique. Data collected by destructive sampling technique were submitted to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for use in developing databases for erosion prediction models. Data collected by nondestructive sampling technique were used to meet other research objectives. Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance and means separated by Least significant difference (LSD) test.

Keywords: Cropping Systems, monocropping, multiple cropping

M.S. Thesis, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096. 1996.

 

CROPPING SYSTEM EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD POTENTIAL OF SWEET PEPPER

P.E. Igbokwe, G.A. Weesies, T. Collins, J. Harness, S.C. Tiwari, O.P. Vadhwa, L.C. Huam, A. Johnson, and D. Stott, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096

Two fields plots established side by side were used to evaluate the effect of conventional (chemical-intensive) monocropping system and low-input (reduced-chemical) multiple cropping systems on "Yolo Wonder" sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) growth and yield potentials. The low-input cropping systems involved the production of sweet pepper in intercropping system with swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) vegetable companion, or in intercropping system with rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) herb companion. The effect of cropping systems on yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) control and some soil properties were also investigated. The study was conducted at the Alcorn State University, Soil Conservation Research Site, Lorman, Mississippi. The soil is a Memphis silt loam (Typic Hapludalfs: fine silty, mixed, thermic). A completely randomized design was used in this study. The cropping systems were assigned to rows 12.19 m long, and 1.07 m wide. Ten pepper seedlings obtained by seeding pepper seeds in Pro Mix Bx â in the greenhouse were planted in each row at a within-row distance of 1.22 m. Ech plant represented an experimental unit. Data collections were either by "Destructive" or "Nondestructive" sampling technique. Data collected by destructive sampling technique were submitted to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for use in developing databases for erosion prediction models. Data collected by nondestructive sampling technique were used to meet other research objectives. The effect of cropping system on root dry weight at -10 cm soil depth, total root fresh and dry weights were significantly highest for the herb-intercropping system. The highest values for plant height, canopy height, shoot fresh and dry weights were also for herb-intercropping system. The values for marketable and nonmarketable pepper fruit number and weight were nonsignificantly highest for the herb-intercropping. Sediments in runoffs from the plots, and nitrate-N in soils were highest for the monocropping system, whereas orthophosphate was highest for vegetable intercropping, but was not different from those for the monocropping system. Nutsedge infestation, soil temperatures, soil moisture and total runoff from plots were not different.

Keywords: Cropping Systems, multiple cropping, monocropping.

Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096. November 1996. Research Publication 96 - 1

 

THE USE OF LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) TO CORRELATE WITH THE FRESH UPPER BIOMASS, PLANT HEIGHT, ROOT DEPTH, AND THE YIELD OF FOUR CABBAGE CULTIVARS

A.H. Al-Humadi, L.C. Huam, J. Harness, and G.K. Panicker, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096

This study was conducted in the Southwest region of Mississippi on four cabbage cultivars (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) using LAI to correlate with Upper Biomass (UB), Plant Height, (PH), Root Depth (RD), and the yield. Red Flat Dutch, Late Round Dutch, Early Round Dutch, and Bonnie Hybrid were planted in sequence: spring 1992, fall 1992, spring 1993 and fall 1993. All cultivars were raised on Memphis Silt Loam Soil at a planting density of 0.914Mx0.304M. Three destructive harvest studies were conducted and pair comparisons were run for "t" values. LAI were significantly different in the first stage of growth across all the seasons. In the second stage spring 1992 vs. fall 1993, and spring 1993 vs. fall 1993; and only spring1992 vs. fall 1992 was significant in the last stage. UB and PH for all cultivars were highly significant in all stages, except fall 1992 vs. spring 1993, and spring 1993 vs. fall 1993 in the second stage for UB; and fall 1992 vs. spring 1993 in the first stage; and spring 1993 vs. fall 1993 for the three stages for PH. RD was highly significant in the first stage between spring 1992 vs, fall 1992, 1993, and spring 1993; and significant in the last stage between spring 1992 and fall 1992, 1993; fall 1992 vs. spring and fall 1993; and spring 1993 vs. fall 1993. LAI was very highly correlated with the UB and highly correlated with the PH. But, none of the parameters was correlated with yield.

Keywords: LAI, biomass

Association of Research Directors, Inc., 1890 Research: Partnership for a Sustainable Future. Eleventh Biennial Research Symposium. Program Abstracts. October 1 - 4, 1997. San Antonio Marriott River Center, San Antonio, TX

 

EFFECTS OF SEASONAL VARIATIONS ON VEGETABLE CROP GROWTH AND EROSION CONTROL POTENTIAL

Patrick Igbokwe, Liang Huam, Suresh Tiwari, O.P. Vadhwa, Alton Johnson, Jesse Harness, Cedric Sims and Ahmad Al-Humadi, Department of Agriculture, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096

The need to identify vegetables and production practices that favor higher productivity and cropland sustainability are some of the major challenges facing investigations working to increase crop production from highly erosive soils. The objectives of this study are (1) to determine the influence of growing season and rainfall on the growth parameters and runoff control potential of broccoli (Brassica oleracea), mustard (B juncea), and turnips (B campestris); (2) to generate data on vegetable crop growth parameters for use with databases that support erosion prediction models. Three field plots established side by side on 4 rows per plot were used in the spring of 1992 and fall of 1994 for this investigation. Seedlings from each test crop were planted on each row 9.Im long and 0.9 lm wide at a within-row distance of 0.3m. The study was conducted on a Memphis silt loam soil at the Alcorn Soil Conservation Research Station. Field preparations, fertilization, pest control and moisture supply were similar for all plots. Data were either analyzed or used in the development of plant databases that support erosion prediction models. In general, broccoli had greater growth potential and was less dependent on rainfall for biomass production than mustard and turnip. It therefore has greater tendency to prevent runoff losses than mustard and turnip.

Keywords: Erosion control potential

Association of Research Directors, Inc., 1890 Research: Partnership for a Sustainable Future. Eleventh Biennial Research Symposium Program Abstracts. October 1 - 4, 1997. San Antonio Marriott River Center, San Antonio, TX 

 

EARLY AND LATE PLANTING EFFECTS ON LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI), BIOMASS AND YIELD OF SNAP BEANS

A.H. Al-Humadi, Girish K. Panicker, C. Sims, Liang C. Huam, and J. Harness, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096

This field research was done on highly erodible Memphis Silt Loam Soil (Typic hapludalf, silty, mixed, thermic) in 1993 and 1994 to compare the LAI, biomass and yield of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. "Provider") planted in late summer of 1993 and early summer of 1994. The density of planting for both crops was at 0.904 m x 0.152 m and they received the same cultural practices and fertilizers. Five destructive harvest studies were conducted in each season. Statistical analysis was performed at 0.05 level of probabilities to determine the significant effects of the leaf area index, biomass, and the yield for the two plantings. Leaf area index (LAI), and upper and lower dry biomass were significantly lower in summer 1993 planting than summer 1994 planting. However, the yield in summer 1993 was higher than the yield of summer 1994. It was concluded that planting in late summer was more economical to the growers than planting in the early summer.

Keyword: LAI, biomass, destructive harvest

Annual Meeting. Program and Abstracts Issue. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences Volume 45 (2). April 2000  

 

C FACTOR RESEARCH ON HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR EROSION PREDICTION METHODS: PHILOSOPHY AND METHODOLOGY OF DATA COLLECTION

G.K. Panicker1, G.A. Weesies2,  A.H. Al-Humadi1, C. Sims1, L.C. Huam1, J. Harness1, J. Bunch3 and T.E. Collins4, 1. Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096. 2. USDA-NRCS,NSERL, Indiana. 3. USDA-NRCS,NPDC, Louisiana. 4. USDA-NRCS, Mississippi

  Even though research and education systems have transformed agriculture from a traditional to a high-technology sector, soil erosion still remains as a major universal problem to agricultural productivity. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its replacement, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) are the most widely used of all soil erosion prediction models. Of the five factors in RUSLE , the cover and management (C) factor is the most important one from the standpoint of conservation planning because land use changes meant to reduce erosion are represented here. Even though the RUSLE is based on the USLE, this modern erosion prediction model is highly improved and updated. Alcorn State University entered into a cooperative agreement with the NRCS of the USDA in 1988 to conduct C-Factor research on vegetable and fruit crops. The main objective of this research is to collect plant growth and residue data that are used to populate databases needed to develop C-factors in RUSLE, and used in databases for other erosion prediction and natural resource models. The enormous data collected on leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover, lower and upper biomass, rate of residue decomposition, C:N ratio of samples of residues and destructive harvest and other growth parameters of canopy and rhizosphere made the project the largest data bank on horticultural crops. The philosophy and methodology of data collection will be presented.

Keywords: USLE, RUSLE, C-Factor, LAI, residue decomposition, C:N ratio

Program Abstracts of the 97th International Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science. HortScience, Vol.35 (3). 2000. p.460  

 

C-FACTOR RESEARCH FOR EROSION PREDICTION MODELS: PHILOSOPHY AND METHODOLOGY OF DATA COLLECTION

Girish K. Panicker1, S.C. Tiwari (Rtd)1, G.A. Weesies2, Diane E. Stott3, Ahamad H. Al-Humadi1, Cedric A. Sims1, Liang C. Huam1, Patrick E. Igbokwe1, O. P. Vadhwa1, Alton B. Johnson1, Jesse Harness1, J. Bunch4, and T.E. Collins5, 1Alcorn State University, Alcorn Stare, MS 39096; 2USDA-NRCS, NSERL, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907; 3USDAARS, NSERL, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907; 4USDA-NRCS, NPDC, Baton Rouge, LA 70874; and 5USDA-NRCS, Jackson, MS 39269

The increased demand for food, fiber and fuel, due to population increase, is causing marked acceleration of soil erosion. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its replacement, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), are the most widely used of all soil erosion prediction models. Of the five factors in RUSLE, the cover and management (C) factor is the most important one from the standpoint of conservation planning because land use changes meant to reduce erosion are represented here. Even thought the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is based on USLE, this modern erosion prediction model is highly improved and updated. Alcorn State University entered into a cooperative agreement with the NCRS of USDA in 1988 to conduct C factor research on vegetable and fruit crops. The main objective of this research is to collect plant growth and residue data that are used to populate databases needed to develop C factors in RUSLE, and used in databases fore other erosion prediction and natural resource models. The enormous data collected on leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover, lower and upper biomass, rate of residue decompostion, C:N ratio of samples of residues and destructive harvest and other growth parameters of canopy and rhizosphere made the project the largest data bank on horticultural crops. The philosophy and methodology of data collection will be presented.

Keywords: USLE, RUSLE, erosion prediction, C-Factor, LAI, C:N ratio, destructive harvest.

Journal of Mississippi Academy of Sciences. Vol. 46 (1), 2001. p.12

 

INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC MANURES AND MULCH ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF MUSCADINE (VITIS ROTUNDIFOLIA)

 Girish K. Panicker1*, Ahmed Al-Humadi1,Cedric A. Sims1, Juan L. Silva2, and Frank B. Matta2,1Alcorn State University, Lorman, MS 39096, and 2Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 

 Organic farming has become a welcome alternative in the field of agriculture due to the uncontrolled spread of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their infiltration into the environment and our bodies. Muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia var. ‘Summit’) was grown in Geneva Double Curtain Trellies System on Memphis Silt Loam Soil (Typic Hapludalph, silty, mixed, thermic). Three treatments of organic manures (cow-C; poultry-P; cow+poultry-CP) with pine mulch were applied in basins around each plant in a C.R design. Control treatment received regular inorganic fertilizers and traditional cultural practices. Biomass development, yield, and fruit and water qualities were evaluated. Percent ground cover, stem diameter, and yield were higher in organic plants. There was no significant difference in diameter, length, and degree brix of the fruit. No pathogenic organism from organic manures was found in fruits. Soil compaction was higher in control and it was lower in organic treatments due to the higher level of organic matter content. Higher concentrations of nitrate-N and P were noticed in the surface soil after manuring, but there was no trend in N or P enrichment of groundwater.    

Keywords: Organic manures, muscadine, Vitis rotundifolia, degree brix, water quality, nitrate-N.   

Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences. Vol. 47 (1), 2002. p. 16. 

 

EFFECT OF C:N RATIO AND SOIL DEPTH ON THE RATE OF  DECOMPOSITION OF BRASSICA OLERACEAE RESIDUES

Girish K. Panicker*, Ahmad H. Alhumadi, and Cedric A. Sims, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096  

 Residue management has been established as a valuable technology for reducing soil erosion from agricultural lands. Data on the rate residue decomposition is an integral part of erosion prediction models. As a part of the research being conducted on horticultural crops for erosion prediction models, fresh residues of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. capitata) were placed in fiberglass mesh bags either at the surface or 15 cm deep in Memphis Silt Loan soil (Typic Hapludalf, silty, mixed, thermic) and were allowed to undergo decomposition for a period of six months. Decomposing samples were collected from the field every 10 days and analyzed for organic C and N. Subsurfaced residues with low C:N ratios decomposed faster than the subsurfaced root residues with high C:N ratios. The surfaced root and shoot residues decomposed slower than the subsurfaced residues. The decomposition rates of both subsurfaced shoot and root were negatively correlated with the low C:N ratios. The results in general showed that the decomposition of crop residues was a function of C:N ratio and the placement in soil. 

Keywords: Brassica oleraceae, residue decomposition, C:N ratio. 

Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences. Vol. 48 (1), 2003. p.14  

 

PLANT DENSITY EFFECT ON YIELD AND BIOMASS DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC EGGPLANT

(Solanum melongena L) 

Sixto A Marquez*, Girish Panicker, Om P Vadhwa, and Patric Igbokwe, Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096             

Eggplant (Solanium melongena L) is a native of India and is widely cultivated for its fruits in the southern United States. As a part of the conservation research being carried out on vegetable crops in Mississippi, a study was conducted to determine the plant density effects on yield and biomass development at various growth stages. A common cultivar Black Beauty was raised on Memphis Silt Loan soil (Typic Hapludalf, silty, mixed, thermic) at low density planting (LDP), 0.760 m x 0.912 m; and high density planting (HDP), 0.609 m x 0.912 m. Worm castings and composed cow manure were applied equally to each plant. No chemicals were sprayed on the crop. Destructive harvest studies were conducted at various stages of growth and analysis of variance was run. Plant height, rhizosphere width, and root length were higher for HDP compared with LDP. Total dry biomass, leaf area index (LAI) and yield were higher for LDP. There was no difference in canopy width, stem diameter canopy cover and fruit length and diameter. LDP is more advisable for farmers because it was higher in yield, total biomass and LAI.  

Keywords: Solanium melongena L, plant density, worm castings, cow manure  

Seventy First Annual Meeting. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences. Volume 52 (1). January 2007. p. 3 n2.  

 

Animal and Forest Wastes on Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia) Production, and Water and Fruit Quality

G. K. Panicker1, A.H. Al-Humadi1,C. A. Sims1, J.L. Silva2, and F. B. Matta21Alcorn State University, Mississippi, USA,2Mississippi State University, Mississippi, USA.  

Increased concerns over the last several decades on environmental quality have stimulated farmers to accept organic farming as an alternative to inorganic agriculture. Muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia var. Summit) was grown on Memphis Silt Loam soil (Typic Hapludalph, silty, mixed, thermic). Three treatments of organic manures (cow-C; poultry-P; cow+poultry-CP) with pine mulch were applied inorganic fertilizers and traditional cultural practices. Leaf area index (LAI), percent canopy cover, stem diameter, and yield were higher in organic plants. There was no significant difference in diameter, length, and degree brix of the fruit. No pathogenic organism from organic manures was found in fruits. Soil compaction was always higher in control with lower soil moisture content and the compaction was lower in organic treatments due to higher level of organic matter content. Concentrations of nitrate-N and P were higher in the surface soil, but there was no trend in N or P enrichment in lower layers of the soil. The results suggest that the controlled application of manures in basins of fruit trees can be an agronomically and environmentally sound practice.  

Keywords:  Vitis rotundifolia, animal wastes, forest wastes, water quality, fruit quality, muscadine, nitrate-N   

Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Protected Cultivation in Mild Winter Climate: Production, Pest management, and Global Competition. ISHS. Volume 2. p. 657-661 

 

BLUEBERRY BIOMASS AND FRUIT QUALITY, AND GROUND WATER QUALITY IN A HEAVY SOIL AS AFFECTED BY ANIMAL AND FOREST WASTE.

 Girish K. Panicker1*, Ahmad H. Al-Humadi1, Cedric A. Sims1, James Spiers2, Juan L. Silva3, and Frank B. Matta31Alcorn State University, Alcorn State, MS 39096, 2USDA Small Fruit Research Station, Poplarville, MS 39470, and 3Mississippi State University, Mississippi State , MS 39762.

Consumers are more concerned with health issues than ever before and numerous medical studies point to horticultural crops as a critical factor of healthy diet. While a lot of research and extension activities have been carried out on sustainable production systems in agronomic crops, there have been very few studies on horticultural crops. Rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinim ashei Reade var. Tifblue) was grown on Memphis Silt Loam soil (Typic Hapludalph, silty, mixed, thermic).Two treatments of organic manures (worm castings – W, cow manure – C) were applied in basins around each plant. Control treatment received regular inorganic fertilizer. All treatments received pine bark and pine needle uniformly. No chemicals were applied to control pests, diseases and weeds. Leaf area index (LAI), percent canopy cover, canopy width and height, stem diameter, and yield were significantly higher in organic plants treated with worm castings. There was no significant difference in size, diameter, and degree brix of the fruit. No pathogenic organism from organic manures was found in fruits. Concentrations of nitrate – N and P were higher in the surface soil with organic manures, but there was no trend in N and P enrichment in lower layers of the soil. The leaching of N or P enrichment in lower layers from inorganic fertilizer was highly significant. The results show that blueberry can be grown successfully on heavy soils with forest waste that can increase soil acidity and worm castings are excellent organic manure for this crop.

 Keywords: Vaccinim ashei Reade var, Tifblue, animal waste, forest waste

 Seventieth Annual Meeting. Journal of The Mississippi Academy of Sciences. Volume 51 (1). p. 29.

 

RESEARCH ON BIOMASS DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDUE DECOMPOSITION OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR EROSION PREDICTION MODELS: PHILOSOPHY AND METHODOLOGY OF DATA COLLECTION

G. K. Panicker1*, S. C. Tiwari Rtd1, A. H. Al-Humadi1, C. Sims1, L. C. Huam1, P. Igbokwe1, O.P. Vadhwa1, A. Johnson1, J. Harness12G. A. Weesies, 2D. E. Slott, 3J. Bunch,4T. E. Collins. 

1Alcorn State University, 1000 ASU Drive 1434, Lorman, MS 39096 USA, 2National Soil Erosion Research Lab, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 USA; 3National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874 USA; 4USDA-NRCS, Federal Building, Jackson, MS 39269 USA.  

The increased demand for food and fiber, due to population increase, is causing marked acceleration of soil erosion. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its replacement, The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is based on the USLE, this modern erosion prediction model is highly improved and updated. Alcorn State University entered into a cooperative agreement with the NRCS of USDA in 1988 to conduct is to collect plant growth and residue data that are used to populate databases needed to develop C-factors in RUSLE, and used in databases for other erosion prediction and natural resourse models. The enormous data collected on leaf are index (LAI), canopy cover, lower and upper biomass, rate of residue decomposition, C:N ratio of samples of residues and destructive harvest and other growth parameters of canopy and rhizosphere made the project the largest data bank on horticultural crops. Philosophy and methodology of data collection will be presented.  

Keywords: biomasss development, residue decomposition, erosion prediction models  

XXVIth International Horticultural Congress & Exhibition (IHC2002). Metro Toronto Convention Centre. August 11-17, 2002.